Some Social Science References on the Defintion of Gangs.
Arnold, William R. "The Concept of Gang." The Sociological Quarterly. 7:1: 59-75.
Ball, Richard A., and G. David Curry. 1995. "The Logic of Definition in Criminology: Purposes and Methods for Defining "Gangs"." Criminology 33:225-246.
Bursik, Robert J.,and Haroldk G. Grasmick. Neighbohoods and Crime. 1993. New York. Lexington Books. Pages 114-117.
Geis, Gilbert. "Juvenile Gangs." Washington. President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency and Crime. 1965. Page 1.
Hagedorn, John M. People & Folks. 1998. Chicago. Lakeview Press. Pages 82-86.
1998. "Gang Violence in the Postindusrial Era." In Michael Tonry and Mark H. Moore, editors, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research Vol. 24: Youth Violence. Pages 366-368.
Klein, Malcolm W. 1995 The American Street Gang. New York. Oxford University Press. Pages 20-30.
Miller, Walter. 1975. "Violence by Youth Gangs and Youth Groups as a Crime Problem in Major American Cities. Washington. Dept. of Justice. Page 9.
Moore, Joan W. "Understanding Youth Gangs: Economic Restructuring and the Urban Underclass. In Meredith Watts, editor, Cross-cultural perspectives on Youth and Violence. Stamford, CN. JAI press. Pages 66-67.
Thrasher, The Gang. 1927/1963. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.. Pages 36-46.
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