Richard Daley, mayor of Chicago, had seen it all before. The Hamburg Athletic Association, Ragen's Colts and other Irish gangs had used their muscle to help out the politicians. In turn, they got jobs in the Machine, and took over the city.

The Hamburgers were among the gangs responsible for racist violence in the 1919 race riot. Bridgeport has always hated Black people, and the Mayor was from Bridgeport.

He built high rise housing across an eight lane highway to separate Irish Bridgeport from African American Bronzeville. His Black ward captains turned in huge Democratic majorities, but open housing and civil rights were off limits.

As the gangs began to organize politically, and work with Fred Hampton and the Black Panther Party, Daley could see the future. The Blackstone Rangers declared a 1968 election boycott and the massive margins of Democratic Party victory in the southside and Lawndale's 24th ward began to tail off.

Daley had a choice: welcome the Black gangs into the system like the Irish gangs were before. Or declare war.

He declared war.